What took me so long to watch La grande illusion one of the greatest masterpieces of French cinema? Jean Renoir’s black and white movie is simply one of the best movies I have ever seen, regardless of any genre. It combines so many elements, to enumerate them all would make a long list. Compared to La grande illusion every other POW movie seems to be just a remake. Every element of later films is already there but the message is a different one. This is a movie that probably wouldn’t have been possible with the same core message after WWII. When Renoir shot his movie, there was still ample room for positive German figures. We don’t see any nasty or cruel guards. La grande illusion is a work of poetical realism. The two points of view go hand in hand.
The central story is the story of two officers Maréchal (Jean Gabin), a simple mechanic, and de Boeldieu (Pierre Fresnay), an aristocrat, shot down together over Germany. They are brought to a prison camp where, thanks to the food parcels of one of their rich Jewish fellow officers, they live relatively luxuriously while the German guards eat cabbage day in and day out. The people they are sharing a room with have been digging a tunnel for weeks. While waiting for the tunnel to be finished, they spend their days rehearsing for a theater play, dreaming of women and civilian life. When Maréchal announces that Douaumont has fallen, they all sing the Marseillaise together. Maréchal is locked up for this act of instigation and almost goes mad in isolation.
Before they can put the tunnel to use, they are all sent to another camp. After different attempts to escape, Maréchal and Boeldieu are brought to burg Wintersheim. Officer von Rauffenstein (Erich von Stroheim) whom they have met before is in charge of the burg. Von Stroheim as Rauffenstein is one of the most memorable war movie characters. He has fairytale like, fantastic aspects. Von Rauffenstein has been badly wounded, his spine has twice been broken, he has silver plates in his body and wears a corset. He looks like an artificial being. He is an aristocrat through and through and recognizing the same background and upbringing in Boeldieu he takes an intense liking to him. Boeldieu, even though, stiff and formal as Maréchal often says, feels closer to the simple officers and wants to transcend the class differences. Even though he likes von Rauffenstein a lot, he still helps the other prisoners in their attempt to flee. Maréchal and Rosenthal make it and find refuge on the farm of a German widow (Dita Parlo). They cannot stay but Maréchal and Elsa still dream of meeting again after the war.
Renoir chose deliberately to show no violence. The war is spoken of, we never see it. His aim was to show a world that transcends differences. This is socialism of the purest kind, the one, that unfortunately only ever existed as an idea. Renoir wanted to show in how many ways people of different classes and nationalities are alike. The French prisoners make fun of the Germans’ constant repeating “Das ist strengstens verboten (strictly forbidden)”. It’s like a running gag all through the movie. A ritual. The Germans try to coerce the French and the French in excahnge make fun of them. Contrasting the attitudes of France and Germany towards obedience is one that we find in many older movies. It is also symbolised in all the interdictions that we see in the movie and in the barbed wire and fences. It’s a very funny movie at times. Fun that stems from the contrasts of the different classes and their use of language. The late, great Jean Gabin was always an outstanding actor, but here, as Maréchal, the simple mechanic, born in the 20th arrondissement of Paris (pure working class), he surpasses himself. I really don’t know how they did the subtitles for this movie as they speak rapidly (I did watch the French version). Judging from the trailer, parts of the dialogues have been left out, nuances have been flattened. That is a pity. The use of dialogue and languages throughout the movie is a very realistic one. Germans speak German, French speak French, English speak English. Working class people speak like working class people, and the aristocrats like aristocrats.
As I said before, I don’t think a movie like this would have been possible after WWII. The illusion that everybody is the same at heart was shattered by then.
The illusion in the title apparently refers to the illusion of the class system. But I think there is another interpretation. Towards the end Maréchal says “We have to finish this war and hope that it was the last one” upon which Rosenthal utters something like “That is just an illusion, old man”. In 1937 is was already obvious that peace wouldn’t last forever.
La Grande Illusion is a movie that every cinephile needs to watch and possibly re-watch as it is multilayered and full of symbolism. Truly a work of art.
Great review! I love your interpretation of the title. Totally makes sense. I am sorry I won’t be watching it any time soon since it is #7 on the list of Greatest War Movies. Obviously, many experts agree with you.
Thanks a lot. Yes, it seems you will have to wait quite a long time… I have been loking for interpretations of the title and no one mentioned mine. I wonder now if this brief end dialogue isn’t in the subtitles. Most critics I read are not French speaking… And I think even if you are French speaking, unless you have Parisian origins and are a native speaker, it’s a tough one to understand…
I found this on wordiq.com. “The title of the film (in French La Grande illusion) comes from an essay called “The Great Illusion” by British economist Normal Angell, who argued that war is futile because of the common economic interests of different nations. The title of Renoir’s film is really more accurately translated to “The Great Illusion”.
I don’t know if this is definitive. I like your explanation better. Given the timing of 1937 with war clouds growing and the fact that WWI was already being called the Great War as though it would never happen again, if the makers did not mean the title to refer to the illusion that WWI was the “war to end all wars” then they should have. Also, the word “great” makes it even more meaningful.
Thanks for the info. I am not a 100% sure that is what Renoir meant from what I read he was more interested in portraying class differences and called them Grand Illusions… Any way, it can’t be a simple coincidence that the little scene I mention is the last bit of dialogue in the movie without menaing something. I’ll have to read some French articles, and see what they come up with… I do agree however that Great Illusion would have been a better translation.
I looked it up and found an article that states that he didn’t think only of the essay you mention. He wanted the title to be ambiguous and to refer to all sorts of illusions, especially to the one that there wouldn’t be another war. He was very lucid and knew it was going to happen again. But he also menat the illusion of class and race…
Pat yourself on the back.
[…] La Grande Illusion aka Grand Illusion (1937): WWI. Jean Renoir’s movie is one of the great classics of European cinema starring the late great Jean Gabin. A POW movie that offers a lot. Interesting German characters included. (Here is the review) […]
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[…] La Grande Illusion – Grand Illusion (1937) This is a classic. One of Jean Renoir’s great movies starring the unforgettable Jean Gabin. It has a very surreal touch which should emphasize the absurdity of war. It’s a prisoner of war movie. Review […]